In all published work and presentations of HFD data, please acknowledge the HFD as either the source or the intermediary of the data. When you download HFD data, please note the date for the future reference.

If you are presenting or analyzing our original estimates of fertility rates, fertility tables or other parts of the provided data, including data from the Short-Term Fertility Fluctuations (STFF) series, the following citation format should be used:


Human Fertility Database. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany) and Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria). Available at (data downloaded on [date]).

If requirements of a publisher or other important reasons force you to choose another citation format, please make sure that this citation includes the full name of the database, full names of the both institutional data providers, and the HFD Internet address.

Please note that some parts of the data available in this collection (especially population exposure data) come from other sources. If you use such data, it is appropriate to cite first the original source and to acknowledge the HFD as the intermediary.

You will find a list of data sources used for each country on the respective country page in the documents "Background and Documentation" and "Refererences". It is the user's responsibility to determine whether the data being cited are original data from the HFD or they come from a different source. It is also the user's responsibility to give proper credit to the organizations and individuals whose data are contained in this database.

If after reading these guidelines you still have questions about proper citation procedures, please contact us.